Archive for September 2013

Free Unix!

September 27th, 2013
Relay-Version: version B 2.10 5/3/83; site utzoo.UUCP
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Path: utzoo!linus!security!genrad!mit-eddie!RMS@MIT-OZ
From: RMS@MIT-OZ@mit-eddie.UUCP (Richard Stallman)
Newsgroups: net.unix-wizards,net.usoft
Subject: new UNIX implementation
Message-ID: <771@mit-eddie.UUCP>
Date: Tue, 27-Sep-83 13:35:59 EDT
Article-I.D.: mit-eddi.771
Posted: Tue Sep 27 13:35:59 1983
Date-Received: Thu, 29-Sep-83 07:38:11 EDT
Organization: MIT AI Lab, Cambridge, MA
Lines: 90

Free Unix!

Starting this Thanksgiving I am going to write a complete
Unix-compatible software system called GNU (for Gnu's Not Unix), and
give it away free to everyone who can use it.  Contributions of time,
money, programs and equipment are greatly needed.

To begin with, GNU will be a kernel plus all the utilities needed to
write and run C programs: editor, shell, C compiler, linker,
assembler, and a few other things.  After this we will add a text
formatter, a YACC, an Empire game, a spreadsheet, and hundreds of
other things.  We hope to supply, eventually, everything useful that
normally comes with a Unix system, and anything else useful, including
on-line and hardcopy documentation.

GNU will be able to run Unix programs, but will not be identical
to Unix.  We will make all improvements that are convenient, based
on our experience with other operating systems.  In particular,
we plan to have longer filenames, file version numbers, a crashproof
file system, filename completion perhaps, terminal-independent
display support, and eventually a Lisp-based window system through
which several Lisp programs and ordinary Unix programs can share a screen.
Both C and Lisp will be available as system programming languages.
We will have network software based on MIT's chaosnet protocol,
far superior to UUCP.  We may also have something compatible
with UUCP.

Who Am I?

I am Richard Stallman, inventor of the original much-imitated EMACS
editor, now at the Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT.  I have worked
extensively on compilers, editors, debuggers, command interpreters, the
Incompatible Timesharing System and the Lisp Machine operating system.
I pioneered terminal-independent display support in ITS.  In addition I
have implemented one crashproof file system and two window systems for
Lisp machines.

Why I Must Write GNU

I consider that the golden rule requires that if I like a program I
must share it with other people who like it.  I cannot in good
conscience sign a nondisclosure agreement or a software license

So that I can continue to use computers without violating my principles,
I have decided to put together a sufficient body of free software so that
I will be able to get along without any software that is not free.

How You Can Contribute

I am asking computer manufacturers for donations of machines and money.
I'm asking individuals for donations of programs and work.

One computer manufacturer has already offered to provide a machine.  But
we could use more.  One consequence you can expect if you donate
machines is that GNU will run on them at an early date.  The machine had
better be able to operate in a residential area, and not require
sophisticated cooling or power.

Individual programmers can contribute by writing a compatible duplicate
of some Unix utility and giving it to me.  For most projects, such
part-time distributed work would be very hard to coordinate; the
independently-written parts would not work together.  But for the
particular task of replacing Unix, this problem is absent.  Most
interface specifications are fixed by Unix compatibility.  If each
contribution works with the rest of Unix, it will probably work
with the rest of GNU.

If I get donations of money, I may be able to hire a few people full or
part time.  The salary won't be high, but I'm looking for people for
whom knowing they are helping humanity is as important as money.  I view
this as a way of enabling dedicated people to devote their full energies to
working on GNU by sparing them the need to make a living in another way.

For more information, contact me.
Arpanet mail:


US Snail:
  Richard Stallman
  166 Prospect St
  Cambridge, MA 02139

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September 3rd, 2013

Nokia Morph

Elop se fue y se llevo con el las divisiones de Mobile Phones y Smart Devices a precio de saldo, como dice Tomi Ahonen, el cáncer ya no esta, pero extirparlo casi le cuesta la vida al paciente, podría haber sido peor, pero Nokia ha sobrevivido, mas chica, con divisiones que no dan perdidas y con algo de dinero en el banco, imposibilitada de vender smartphones con su marca hasta 2016, pero pudiendo usar la marca en cualquier otro tipo de dispositivos o servicio, esta limitación puede convertirse en una motivación extra para buscar nuevas áreas en las que aplicar las tecnologías que el NRC ha estado desarrollando por años en ámbitos distintos a los que Nokia apuntaba hasta ayer, quizás estas tecnologías y conceptos experimentales le permitan a Nokia poco a poco volver a ser lo que fue y mucho mas; se que todo esto puede sonar demasiado optimista, pero ante Nokia soy débil, mi primer Nokia lo compre en 1997, la mitad de mi vida he tenido un Nokia en el bolsillo o en la mochila, sus teléfonos me han acompañado en muchos momentos importantes para mi, he recibido llamados y mensajes con grandes noticias y alegrías, me ha permitido salir de problemas, con un 5310 le saque la primera foto a mi hijo, he pasado miles de horas desarrollando apps para ellos y cada mañana un Nokia me despierta, por estas y por muchas otras razones tantos personales como profesionales es imposible no sentirse triste ante lo que estaba pasando y culmino hoy, pero Nokia lleva 148 años adaptándose a los tiempos, la metamorfosis ya comenzó, esta en su ADN, elämä jatkuu…

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